This article is regarding the Navratna Savas of different Indian Kings.
Last updated on: 29th November 2016.
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Navratna or Nauratan means Nine Gems . Navratna was a team of nine excellent, super talented and super active people in an emperor’s court in India.
In Indian history there were two Navratna Savas . One was in the court of Vikramaditya who was also known as Chandragupta-II. And the second was in the court of Akbar , the great Mugal emperor. Details are given bellow.
Akbar was admirer of art and learning. His court was full of many scholars and talented artists.
Akbar had a Navratna Sava. His Navratans were:
◕ 1. Abul Fazal
We can say he was a chronicler of Akbar's rule. He was the author of a book on Akbar's biography - Akbarnama . He also wrote Ain-i-Akbari or the Constitution of Akbar . He led the imperial army in the Deccan. Abul Fazal was assassinated by Vir Singh while he was returning from the Deccan. Vir Singh was advised by the Mughal prince Salim to do this. Because Abul Fazal was opposing the prince Salim to achieve the throne of Mugal emperor.
◕ 2. Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan
He was a renowned composer and astrologer. He was the son of Akbar’s general Bairam Khan , the person who looked after him after the death of Humayun. He also knew as Rahim . Rahim was famous for his Hindi dohe and his books on astrology.
◕ 3. Birbal
His real name was Mahesh Das . He was educated in many languages, like Hindi, Sanskrit, and Persian etc. He was specialised in music and poetry in the Braj language. He was appointed as a poet & singer in the Akbar court. Later he became an important part of Akbar’s court by his talent, intelligence and advice. Then Birbal's duties were mainly military and administrative. He died in a battle with Afghani tribes in Swat , a place in northwest India, today in Pakistan.
◕ 4. Faizi
He was a poet and Scholar. He was also known as Shaikh Abu al-Faiz ibn Mubarak. He was elder brother of Abul Fazal. Akbar highly recognized his talent and appointed him tutor for his sons. He translated the Panchatantra , the Ramayana and the Mahabharata in Persian.
◕ 5. Faqir Aziao Din
He was one of the Akbar’s chief advisers and belonged to his inner circle. Akbar regarded his advice in high esteem.
◕ 6. Man Singh
He was the king of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur. He was a trusted general of Mugal emperor Akbar. Raja Man Singh assisted Akbar in many fronts. He was Mugal viceroy of Afghanistan . Later he was also Mugal viceroy of Bengal . He led Mugal campaings in many fronts such as Bihar, Orissa and Deccan.
◕ 7. Mullah Do Piaza
His character was for the folk tales featuring. He was portrayed as Birbal’s rival. As he was also wit and intelligent like Birbal. He was an intelligent advisor of Akbar.
◕ 8. Tansen
He was a great Hindustani classical music composer , musician and vocalist. He credited lot of Raagas such as Mian ki Malhar, Mian ki Todi & Darbari Kanada etc. His father was Mukund Pandy , a poet and accomplished musician, who for some time was a temple priest in Varanasi. Tansen’s child name was Ramtanu Pandey . He was also knowing as Tanna Mishra. Tansen’s Guru was Swami Haridas , the legendary composer, vocalist from Vrindavan . Raja Man singh Tomar conferred him as Tansen. Later he was also known as Mohammad Ata khan .
◕ 9. Todar Mal
He was finance minister of Akbar court. He was one of the great statisticians of all time in the world. He was the revenue minister of the great Sher Shah Suri . After Sher Shah Suri, Akbar appointed him as finance minister due to his talent, dedication and creative thinking. After doing a survey on crop, land etc, he introduced a new system of revenue known as Zabt. He introduced standard weights and measurements, a land survey and settlement system, revenue districts and officers. He can be thought as one of the first statisticians in India as well as in the whole world. He worked on taxes and revenues and calculated these according to one’s property. Many of his fundamental things, still in use in the whole world.
Kahsi Vishwanath Temple was rebuilt in 1585 by Todar Mal. He translated Bhagavat Puran in Persian.
Vikramaditya was a legendary emperor of ancient India. He was an ideal king. He was a king with generosity, courage, and patronage of scholars. There are hundreds of stories about Vikramaditya, including Baital Pachisi & Singhasan Battisi .
A Chinese traveler, Fa-Hien visited India during his reign and wrote lot of things about this country. We knew lot of things from Fa-Hien’s creations.
Vikramaditya had a Navratna Sava. His Navratans were:
◕ 1. Amarasimha
Amara Simha or Amara Sinha was a Sanskrit grammarian and poet. His personal life is unknown to us. Though most of his work was destroyed, still his Amara Kosha (Treasury of Amara), a vocabulary of Sanskrit in three books is there.
◕ 2. Dhanvantari
Dhanvantri was a great Ayurvedic Physician.
◕ 3. Ghatakarpura
A famous Sanskrit poet. He was expert in sculpture and architecture
◕ 4. Kalidasa
Kavi Kalidas is the immortal poet and famous in the whole world for his works. He wrote classic Sanskrit plays like Malavikagnimitram, Vikramorvasiyam and Abhignanasakuntalam.
His worte epic poems. Like Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava. Raghuvamsa means 'Dynasty of Raghu' and Kumarasambhava means ‘Birth of Kumara’.
His lyric poems were Meghaduta and Rtusamhara. Meghaduta means 'Cloud Messenger' and Rtusamhara means 'The Exposition on the Seasons'.
◕ 5. Kshapanka
He was a great astrologers in Vikramaditya's court.
◕ 6. Shanku
A super expert personal in the field of architecture.
◕ 7. Varahamihira
A renowned astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. Varahamihira’s main work was the book Pancasiddhantika, which means Pancha Siddhantika.
◕ 8. Vararuchi
A famous grammarian and Sanskrit scholar.
◕ 9. Vetala Bhatta
He was a Maga Brahmin. He will be always remember for his noted work of the sixteen stanza Niti Pradeepa, which means Lamp of Conduct.
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